In this paper, we primarily addressed constant-bit-rate videos,and multiple quality or resolution versions of the same video used for progressive download,or adaptive bit rate(ABR) streaming,are treated as different videos.Consequently,depending on the cache policy(proactive or reactive) and the nature of requests, multiple quality/resolution versions of the same video may have to be cached at the same(e)NodeB, leading to inefﬁcient use of the limited sized RAN caches. In the future, techniques need to be developed to address the above problem, in particular in the context of ABR streaming, which is gaining popularity. With ABR-capable streaming, multiple bit-rate versions of a video can be requested by a mobile client during a video session due to varying network conditions,making the problem of efﬁcient video caching even more difﬁcult. In , we have proposed a new architecture supplementing (e)nodeB caches with limited processing capability, and a joint caching and video processing algorithm that not only caches the videos with the bit rate that is most likely to be requested by the users within the cell, but also uses the (e)NodeB processor to transcode the videos to the desired bit rate. Preliminary results show the feasibility of improving the cache hit ratio signiﬁcantly over the current approach that needs to cache all bit rate versions. In the future, we plan to further improve ABR caching and extend ABR-capable caching for proactive caching policies. Furthermore, we plan to extend our RAN caching approach to hierarchical caching at the gateways of the core network to support mobility of users across cells and increase network capacity
Do enjoy yourself. Thais like life to be sanuk.
I want to see you again
Loi Krathong in Thailand originated in Sukhothai period as Loy Phra Pra Teip or Loy Khom (floating lantern). It is a festival of Thai people. After that, Noppamas- the most favorite concubines Sukhothai king - created krathong, like lotus-shaped, for floating in the river. Instead of floating lantern, it used for worshipping the foot-print of Buddha at Nammathanati River beach in Thakkhinabodh district, India. As we called Nehrabhuddha river.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. Electromagnetic waves such as light exhibit polarization, as do some other types of wave, such as gravitational waves. Sound waves in a gas or liquid do not exhibit polarization, since the oscillation is always in the direction the wave travels. Polarized Light Vibrations lie on one single plane only. Unpolarized Light Superposition of many beams, in the same direction of propagation, but each with random polarization. คือ ปรากฏการณ์ โพลาไรเซชัน Light in the form of a plane wave in space is said to be linearly polarized. Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave, but natural light is generally unpolarized, all planes of propagation being equally probable. If light is composed of two plane waves of equal amplitude by differing in phase by 90°, then the light is said to be circularly polarized. If two plane waves of differing amplitude are related in phase by 90°, or if the relative phase is other than 90° then the light is said to be elliptically polarized.
Healthy Intentions Most of us have healthy intentions when it comes to the food we eat. But it can be tough. Especially when you consider that our bodies have not properly adapted to our highly processed fast food diets. A One hundred years ago, the leading causes of death in the industrial world were infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza and pneumonia. Since then, the emergence of antibiotics, vaccines and public health controls has reduced the impact of infectious disease. Today, the top killers are non-infectious illnesses related essentially to lifestyle (diet, smoking and lack of exercise). The main causes of death in the United States in 1997 were heart disease, cancer and stroke. Chronic health problems, such as obesity, noninsulin-dependent diabetes and osteoporosis, which are not necessarily lethal but nonetheless debilitating, are steadily increasing. It is clear that economic and technical progress is no assurance of good health. В Humans are qualitatively different from other animals because we manipulate the flow of energy and resources through the ecosystem to our advantage, and consequently to the detriment of other organisms. That is why we compete so successfully with other species. But with this success come some inherent failings, particularly in terms of our health. С According to physician Boyd Eaton and his anthropologist colleagues, despite all our technological wizardry and intellectual advances, modern humans are seriously malnourished. The human body evolved to eat a very different diet from that which most of us consume today. Before the advent of agriculture, about ten thousand years ago, people were hunter-gatherers, the food varying with the seasons and climate and all obtained from local sources. Our ancestors rarely, if ever, ate grains or drank the milk of other animals. D Although ten thousand years seems a long time ago, 99.99 percent of our genetic material was already formed. Thus we are not well adapted to an agriculturally based diet of cereals and dairy products. At least 100,000 generations of people were hunter-gatherers, only 500 generations have depended on agriculture, only ten generations have lived since the onset of the industrial age and only two generations have grown up with highly processed fast foods. Physicians Randolph Nesse and George Williams write: 'Our bodies were designed over the course of millions of years for lives spent in small groups hunting and gathering on the plains of Africa. Natural selection has not had time to revise our bodies for coping with fatty diets, automobiles, drugs, artificial lights and central heating. From this mismatch between our design and our environment arises much, perhaps most, preventable modern disease.' E Do we really want to eat like prehistoric humans? Surely 'cavemen' were not healthy? Surely their life was hard and short? Apparently not. Archaeological evidence indicates that these hunter-gatherer ancestors were robust, strong and lean with no sign of osteoporosis or arthritis -even at more advanced ages. Paleolithic humans ate a diet similar to that of wild chimpanzees and gorillas today: raw fruit, nuts, seeds, vegetation, fresh untreated water, insects and wild-game meat low in saturated fats. Much of their food was hard and bitter. Most important, like chimpanzees and gorillas, prehistoric humans ate a wide variety of plants - an estimated 100 to 300 different types in one year. Nowadays, even health-conscious, rich westerners seldom consume more than twenty to thirty different species of plants. F The early human diet is estimated to have included more than 100 grams of fiber a day. Today the recommended level of 30 grams is rarely achieved by most of us. Humans and lowland gorillas share similar digestive tracts - in particular, the colon - but, while gorillas derive up to 60 percent of their total energy from fiber fermentation in the colon, modern humans get only about 4 percent. When gorillas are brought into captivity and fed on lower-fiber diets containing meat and eggs, they suffer from many common human disorders: cardiovascular disease, ulcerative colitis and high cholesterol levels. Their natural diet, rich in antioxidants and fiber, apparently prevents these diseases in the wild, suggesting that such a diet may have serious implications for our own health. G Not all agricultural societies have taken the same road. Many traditional agriculturalists maintain the diversity of their diet by eating a variety of herbs and other plant compounds along with meat and grains. The Huasa people of northern Nigeria, for example, traditionally include up to twenty wild medicinal plants in their grain-based soups, and peoples who have become heavily reliant on animal products have found ways of countering the negative effects of such a diet. While the Masai of Africa eat meat and drink blood, milk and animal fat as their only sources of protein, they suffer less heart trouble than Westerners. One reason is that they always combine their animal products with strong, bitter antioxidant herbs. In other words, the Masai have balanced the intake of oxidising and antioxidising compounds. According to Timothy Johns, it is not the high intake of animal fat or the low intake of antioxidants, that creates so many health problems in industrial countries; it is the lack of balance between the two. H Eating the right foods and natural medicines requires a sensitivity to subtle changes in appetite. Do I fancy something sweet, sour, salty, stimulating or sedating? What sort of hunger is it? And after consumption, has the 'need' been satisfied? Such subtleties are easily overridden by artificially created superstimuli in processed foods that leave us unable to select a healthy diet. We need to listen more carefully to our bodies' cravings and take an intentional role in maintaining our health before disease sets in. Questions 14 - 20 Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 14 - 20 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. 14 a reference to systems for neutralizing some harmful features of modern diets 15 a suggestion as to why mankind has prospered 16 an example of what happens if a balanced, plant-based diet is abandoned 17 a chronological outline of the different types of diet mankind has lived on 18 details of which main factors now threaten human life 19 a reference to one person's theory about the cause of some of today's illnesses 20 details of the varied intake of early humans Questions 21 - 26 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading passage 2? In boxes 21 - 26 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 21 An increase in material resources leads to improved physical health. 1) Yes 2) No 3) Not given 22 Cereals were unknown to our hunter-gathering ancestors. 1) Yes 2) No 3) Not given 23 In the future, human bodies will adapt to take account of changes in diet. 1) Yes 2) No 3) Not given 24 Many people in developed countries have a less balanced diet than early humans. 1) Yes 2) No 3) Not given 25 Gorillas that live in the wild avoid most infectious diseases. 1) Yes 2) No 3) Not given 26 Food additives can prevent people from eating what their bodies need. 1) Yes 2) No 3) Not given READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Educational and Professional Opportunities for Women in New Technologies The principle that you don't have to be a mechanic to drive a car can also be applied to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Gone are the days when a computer user needed knowledge of a programming language. On one hand, this is good news for women. It is because women can now use computers without needing computer science qualifications that gives ICTs the potential to enhance women's education. But, our lack of ICT skills is not praiseworthy. Feminist writers for many years have argued that if more women were engineers and scientists, we might live in a very different world. (Rothschild 1982) In a review of five countries, Millar and Jagger examined women's employment in ICT occupations. They found a pattern of a low proportion of female entrants, a significant 'leaking' (Alper 1993) of those who enter to other areas of employment, and a ghetto of women in lower paid jobs. How did a new area of economic activity become gendered so quickly? An obvious answer could be that men have seen it as a desirable area and women have not. It is often said that new industries are both 'gender blind' (i.e. if you are good at your work you'll succeed whatever your gender) and that they value 'feminine' communication and 'people' skills. But recent research does not bear this out. A study of a new high-tech ICT company (Woodfield 2000) employing highly qualified graduates showed that men were given management responsibility despite an acknowledgement by the company that they had poor management skills. And there was an unwillingness to give responsibilities to women who had these skills. It seems that jobs acquire gender quite quickly in some sectors. In the 1980s and 1990s, interesting studies were done into the ways in which men and women think about the world. They argued for the validation of diverse ways of thinking, rather than a hierarchy with a particular kind of male intellectual tradition at the apex. Turkle (1984; 1996) has done similar work on the ways people interact with computers. She sees computers as tools used as an extension of our identities, with significant variations in the ways that men and women use them to explore and perform their gend
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